Electric cars in India – Electric cars are making big waves within the automobile, world these noise free pollution fries and high-performance vehicles are expected to form their IC engine counter parts obsolete by 2025. This text will unveil the hidden technologies behind the Tesla Model S. This recently became the world’s fastest accelerating car.
We will see how electric cars have achieved superior performance by analyzing the technology behind the induction motor, inverter, lithium-ion battery, power source and in particular the synchronized vehicle mechanism during a logical step-by-step. The Tesla car is an invention made by the good scientist Tesla around 100 years back the induction motor the induction.
Motor has two main parts the stator and therefore the rotor you’ll see the development details of the motor here the rotor is just a set of conducting bars short-circuited by end Rings.
A three-phase AC power input is given to the stator the three-phase AC within the coils produces a rotating magnetic flux the Tesla motor produces a four pole magnetic flux this rotating magnetic flux that induces current on the rotor bars to form it turn in an induction motor.
The rotor always legs behind the RMF an induction motor has neither brushes nor a static magnet at an equivalent time it’s robust and powerful the sweetness of an induction motor is that its speed depends on the frequency of the AC power supply.
So just by varying the frequency of the facility supply we’ll be ready to alter the drive wheel speed this easy fact makes electric speed control easy and reliable the motor supply is from a variable frequency drive which successively controls motor speed the motor speed can range from zero to 18,000 rpm.
This is often the foremost sizable advantage electric cars have in comparison to combustion cars an engine produces usable torque and power output only within limited speed range.
therefore directly connecting the engine rotation to the drive wheel isn’t an ingenious idea a transmission must be introduced to vary the drive wheel speed on the opposite hand an induction motor will work efficiently in any speed range thus no speed varying transmission is required for an electrical car moreover an IC engine doesn’t produce the wrecked rotational motion the linear motion of the piston has got to be converted to rotational motion this causes major problems for mechanical balancing not only is that the combustion engine not self started like an induction motor.
further the facility output of an IC engine is usually uneven many accessories are needed to unravel these issues on the opposite hand you’ll have direct rotational motion and uniform power output with an induction motor
Many components within the IC engine are often avoided here as a results of these factors an excellent response rate and better power to weight ratio comes naturally to an induction motor leading to superior vehicle performance but from where does the motor receive power from A battery pack the battery produces DC power so before supply get to a motor it’s to be converted to AC an inverter is employed for this purpose,
This power device also controls the AC power frequency thus controlling the motor speed moreover the inverter can even vary the amplitude of the AC power which successively will control the motor power output thus the inverter acts because the brain of the electrical car.
Now let’s turn our focus to the battery pack you’ll be amazed to seek out that they’re just a set of common lithium-ion cells almost like those utilized in your lifestyle .
The cells are connected during a combination of series and parallel to supply the facility required to run your electric glycol coolant is skilled metallic inner tubes, through the gap between the cells this is often one principal innovation of Tesla by using many small cells rather than a couple of big cells.
Effective cooling is guaranteed this minimizes thermal hot spots and even temperature distribution is achieved resulting in higher battery pack life the cells are arranged as detachable modules there are 16 such modules within the battery pack constituting around 7,000 cells, the heated glycol is cooled down by passing through a radiator which is fitted at the front of the vehicle.
you’ll see how such a coffee height battery pack when fitted on the brink of the bottom level will lower the vehicle center of gravity of gravity improves the steadiness of the car considerably. the massive battery pack is additionally spread across the ground offering structural rigidity against side collisions.
3.Tesla drive train
Now let’s revisit to Tesla’s drive train the facility produced by the motor is transferred to the drive wheels via a gearbox as previously discussed Tesla Model S uses an easy single speed transmission, because the motor is efficient during a wide selection of operating conditions you’ll see that output speed from the motor is reduced in two steps even achieving the reverse gear is sort of easy in an electrical car just change the order of the facility phase for this the sole purpose of electrical car transmission is speed reduction and associated torque multiplication the second component within the gearbox may be a differential do speed drive is passed thereto .
you’ll see this is often an easy open differential however open differentials have a drag of traction control but why does such a complicated car use an open differential instead of a limited slip differential the solution is that the open differential is more rugged and may carry more torque a drag that happens in an open differential can effectively be overcome with help of two methods
• selectively breaking and
• cutting the facility supply
Internal combustion engine this power supply cut by cutting the fuel isn’t so responsive in an induction motor however the facility supply cut is sort of responsive and an efficient means for obtaining traction control within the Tesla this will all be accomplished employing a state-of-the-art algorithm with help from sensors and controllers briefly .
Tesla Motors has replaced a posh mechanical Hardware system with smart responsive software did you recognize an electrical al car might be driven officially with the assistance of only one pedal his is thanks to its powerful regenerative braking system meaning saving the large K.E. of the car within the sort of electricity without wasting it as heat in an electric car.
You release the accelerator the regenerative braking comes into action the interesting thing is that in the regenerative braking an equivalent induction motor acts as a generator here the wheels drive the rotor of the induction motor.
we all know in an induction motor the rotor speed is a smaller amount than the RMF speed to convert the motor to a generator you only need to confirm that the rotor speed is bigger than the RMF speed the inverter plays an important role here in adjusting the input power frequency and keeping the RMF speed below the rotor speed, this may generate electricity within the stator coils which is much above the supplied electricity the generated electricity can then be stored within the battery pack.
After the conversion an opposing electromagnetic force acts on the rotor during this process therefore the drive wheels and therefore the car will hamper this manner vehicle speed are often accurately controlled during the drive employing a single pedal the pedal are often applied for an entire stop as you would possibly already remember electric cars are much safer than combustion cars.
The cost of maintaining and driving an electrical car is far less than that of an IC engine car with the drawbacks of the electrical car evaded through the arrival of improved technology electric cars promised to be the cars of the longer term
4.Comparison IC engine and induction motor
|Sr No||Induction motor||IC engine|
|1.||31.8 Kg||180 Kg|
|2.||270 KW||140 KW|
|3.||8.5 KW/Kg||0.8 KW/Kg|